Security & Guard Services

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168 - This is a shorthand term to refer to a manned security coverage plan or Schedule that provides 24/7 coverage with one (1) officer at a time – in other words: 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, which equals 168 hours in a week. Because this is such a common coverage plan, it is sometimes referred to simply as “a 168.”
208 - This is a shorthand term to refer to a manned security coverage plan or Schedule that provides 24/7 coverage with one (1) regular officer at a time, plus one (1) supervisor who works one 40-hour shift per week – in other words: [24 hours per day, 7 days per week, equaling 168 hours in a week], plus [8 hours per day, 5 days per week, equaling 40 hours per week], which totals 208 hours per week. This is sometimes referred to simply as “a 208.”
336 - This is a shorthand term to refer to a manned security coverage plan or Schedule that provides 24/7 coverage with two (2) officers at a time – in other words: 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, with 2 officers, which equals 336 hours in a week. This is sometimes referred to simply as “a 336.”
40-Hour Week - This is the most common and basic work week length in the manned security industry (generally comprising five 8-hour workdays). Per the FLSA, hours worked over the standard 40 within one calendar week must be paid to the employee as Overtime.
504 - This is a shorthand term to refer to a manned security coverage plan or Schedule that provides 24/7 coverage with three (3) officers at a time – in other words: 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, with 3 officers, which equals 504 hours in a week. This is sometimes referred to simply as “a 504.”
8-Hour Shift - This is the most common and basic shift length in the manned security industry. In some cases, a standard 8-hour shift will include a paid, “working” lunch period. In some other cases, the actual length of the standard shift is 8.5 hours, with a 30-minute unpaid and unbilled lunch break (so the officer still only gets paid for 8 hours – and the client is only billed for 8 hours). Depending upon the labor laws in particular states, sometimes hours worked over the standard 8 in a single day must be paid to the employee as Overtime.
Access Control or Access Control System - A security system installed at a site to provide access to authorized individuals or deny access to those not verbally, visually, or electronically verified/authorized. Modern computerized access control systems use programmed keycards and ID badges for controlled and tracked access within a facility. Older access control systems are simple manual protocols involving speakers, cameras, call buttons, and remote buzzer entry doors.
Alarm Receiving Center (ARC) - A center that receives information from alarm systems. These centers (also commonly known as central station) are manned 24/7 by security operators who receive and act upon the information as necessary. An ARC will receive an alarm signal, when the detectors have been activated at a site. The ARC’s operators will then respond accordingly to this signal, which may mean contacting the relevant keyholders, emergency services, or the site owner. Some ARCs are part of a facility’s SOC or GSOC. See “SOC”.
Area Supervisor or Field Supervisor or Area Captain - An overhead supervisory position that is not associated with a specific client account – but instead oversees or assists multiple security accounts. The Area Supervisor usually drives a company-supplied vehicle and is often traveling, check on service sites, delivering uniforms and equipment, and handling disciplinary issues. Some Area Supervisors also assist with scheduling. Typically, an Area Supervisor works out of a single Field Office or Branch Office.
Area Vice President or AVP - This is a field executive position at a security vendor. An AVP is usually responsible for one or more Field Offices in a general geographic area. An AVP is also financially responsible for one or more P&Ls. Customarily, the direct reports to an AVP will be General Managers and Branch Managers.
Armed or Armed Officer - This refers to manned security services where the security officers are equipped with a firearm (gun) while on duty. Typically, the firearms carried are handguns, but in rare cases, armed officers may carry rifles or shotguns. In many cases, in addition to a firearm, armed officers will also carry other forms of protective or defensive equipment (such as Batons, OC spray, Taser™, etc.). In most states, armed officers require specific additional training and certification. Typically, armed officers also wear Ballistic Vests while on duty. For comparison, see “Unarmed”.
Ballistic Vest or Body Armor or Bulletproof Vest - A ballistic vest is a piece of equipment worn on the torso that is intended to protect the wearer against bullets and other projectiles. Some ballistic vests (known as “internal vests”) are worn under clothing and are intended to be concealed from view; other ballistic vests (known as “external vests” or “tactical vests”) are worn on the outside of the clothing and are clearly visible. Note that the term “bulletproof vest” is a misnomer – no ballistic vest provides complete protection against all types of projectiles. Ballistic vests are rated by their resistance to increasingly more potent projectiles, with Type I being the least protective level of armor, Type IIA being the next more protective level, and so on, up to Type IV, which is the most robust body armor rating. See “Armed”.
Baton - This is a handheld defensive weapon that is a cylindrical club made of wood, rubber, plastic, or metal, which can be used to deliver blunt force strikes to an assailant. There are many types of batons, ranging from bats, truncheons, tonfas, and nightsticks, to telescoping expandable metal batons – sometimes referred to as ASPs (after a company name associated with their production). Some states ban the use of batons by security officers, while others require additional certification and training. See “Armed” and “Unarmed”.
Bill Rate - This is the hourly rate charged to a customer by a manned security provider for an hour of labor, by position. It is different from the Wage Rate. For example, a security officer may earn an hourly Wage of $15, but the security company could have a Bill Rate for that position of $21.75. The difference between the Wage Rate and the Bill Rate is referred to alternately as the Margin or the Mark-Up.
Billable Overtime - This is Overtime that is both payable to the security officer at overtime rates AND billable to a client at overtime bill rates (typically 1.5 times the regular bill rate). Because most overtime is not billable (see “NBOT”), billable overtime is generally the exception in the manned security industry and must be specifically permitted in the contract or agreement. For comparison and reference, see “Overtime” and “NBOT”.
Body Armor - See “Ballistic Vest”.
Branch Manager - This is typically a senior manager position at a security vendor, just below the executive level. A Branch Manager typically reports to a General Manager or Area Vice President. A Branch Manager usually is responsible for a Branch or Field Office and the staff working from that office. Customarily, the direct reports to a Branch Manager will be Operations Managers or Area Supervisors.
Branch or Branch Office - This is a typically a small regional office of a security vendor. Branch offices are usually managed by a Branch Manager and have minimal overhead staffing. Branch offices usually exist as a local outpost to provide operations support, equipment and uniform storage, and possibly a vehicle patrol hub for a specific area. Usually, a Branch Office is part of a regional structure that is part of a larger Field Office.
Bulletproof Vest - See “Ballistic Vest”.
CCTV – Closed Circuit Television - The use of cameras to transmit a closed signal to a specific end point. The signal is not ‘open’, so it can only be received by authorized end points. The signal may be transmitted from one point to another (point to point), from one point to multipoint or via wireless links. In a security environment, CCTV systems are typically connected to a network of security cameras.
Client Service Manager (CSM) - See “District Manager”.
Closed Site - A location that is entirely surrounded by a barrier and by a CCTV system covering all areas. The barriers must be secure, such as effective security fencing.
Detector - Part of an intrusion detection system, a detector recognizes an incident or event on a site. A detector does not record footage from a site; instead, it communicates the data to a CCTV camera, which begins recording. In turn, this footage is transferred to the remote monitoring station or a SOC. A detector can recognize many different changes on site from movement to temperature and humidity, depending on the needs of the site.
Digital Key/Key Fob/Fob - This is a portable device used by security installers and integrators to ‘set’ or ‘unset’ a security system or remotely monitored CCTV system. To set or unset a system means to activate or deactivate the system – setting the system will allow the remote monitoring station or SOC to receive alarms and footage.
Digital Video Recorder (DVR) or Network Video Recorder (NVR) - Both act as a video recorder and central point for CCTV systems.
District Manager (DM) or Client Service Manager (CSM) - Security & Guard - This is an operations position within a security vendor’s structure that is responsible for managing all aspects of service delivery for client contracts within a defined geographic area, usually associated with a specific Field Office or Branch Office. One or more DMs or CSMs report to a General Manager or Area Vice President. Reporting to the DMs or CSMs will usually be one or more Operations Managers, as well as Area Supervisors and Patrol Supervisors.
End User/Customer/Client - An individual or company who makes use of the services provided by security provider. They will have entered into a contractual agreement with the vendor providing the security services, which may range from manned security to remote monitoring, or a range of manned and electronic services, as necessary.
Event - In an alarm-monitoring scenario, an “Event” starts when an operator answers an alarm. One event may contain many alarms subsequent to the first alarm. After all the alarms in an event have been investigated and no new alarms are received, the event is closed, and a relevant outcome is assigned to that event. At this point, the event may become an incident or be closed as a false alert or nuisance alarm.
False Alert or False Alarm - A false alert is when an alarm condition is raised but the condition is cancelled by the remote alarm receiving center. A false alert is different from a Nuisance Alarm.
Field Office - A larger main regional office of a security vendor. Field offices are usually managed either by a General Manager or an Area Vice President and are staffed with multiple overhead support positions (including HR, Operations, Admin, Training, etc.). Field offices may sometimes have Branch Offices or Satellite Offices beneath them in the vendor’s organizational structure. Often, a field office and all of the clients it serves make up the basis for a local or field-level P&L.
FLSA - This stands for Fair Labor Standards Act, which is a United States labor law that created the right to a minimum wage, and "time-and-a-half" Overtime pay when employees work more than forty (40) hours per week.
Foot Patrol - This is a walking route that a security officer would take during his/her shift to check places of interest, concern, or vulnerability. See “Patrol”. Sometimes, security officers will employ a Guard Tour System while conducting their patrols.
Functional Camera or PTZ - Functional cameras are very important for the remote monitoring station or SOC as they allow operators to pan, tilt, and zoom (also known as PTZ) the camera. This allows the operator to view a wider section of the site and in more detail, depending on the technical specification of the functional camera itself.
General Manager (GM) - Security & Guard - This is an executive position – typically the most junior executive level in a security vendor’s hierarchy. A General Manager is usually in charge of operations for a specific geographic region, which usually contains a Branch or Field Office and possibly one or more Satellite Offices. In many cases, the GM position is the lowest level in a security organization that has P&L responsibility and accountability. Customarily, the direct reports to a GM will be Branch Managers, District Managers, or Operations Managers.
GSOC - Stands for Global Security Operations Center. Typically pronounced “JEE-sock”. See “SOC.”
Guard - See “Security Officer.”
Guard Card or Guard License or License - In most U.S. states, a security officer must acquire and maintain a license from the state or county in which they live or plan to work as a security officer. This license is sometimes referred to as a “Guard Card.” Licensure requirements vary from state to state, and some states require an additional license or certification if the officer will be working in an Armed capacity.
Guard Tour or “Tour” - This is a predefined patrol route that a security officer is expected to perform at least once (but usually multiple times) during his/her shift. A guard tour is typically performed as part of a Foot Patrol, but some guard tours can be accomplished using a patrol vehicle, golf cart, bicycle, or other conveyance. Typical guard tours have various key points along the way that the security officer is supposed to check, such as doors, gates, storage rooms, machinery, equipment, etc. Often, guard tours are recorded and validated using a Guard Tour System.
Guard Tour System - This is typically an electronic, handheld device or smartphone app that allows a security guard to scan points along a predetermined patrol route (indoors or outdoors) to confirm that the patrol and all of the points within that patrol have been covered. These systems can scan adhesive barcodes/stickers, RFID tags, NFC tags, or even QR codes. There are multiple types of these systems, some of which use proprietary hardware, and some that are apps on smartphones. Among them are Secure Trax (G4S), HeliAUS (Allied Universal), Vision (Securitas), gTrack (GardaWorld), SilverTrac (3rd party), QR Patrol (3rd party), the PIPE (3rd party), TrackForce Valiant (3rd party), and others.
Hours per Week (or HPW) - This refers to Hours per Week of security services, which means the total number of billable labor hours provided by security officers at a client facility in a single weekly period. For example, if a security vendor is providing service 8 hours per day, 7 days per week, the total service at that facility would be 56 HPW.
In the Rate(s) or In-Rate - This refers to any Non-Labor charges that are included in the overall hourly Bill Rate for security services. These charges could include equipment (phones, radios, etc.), vacation payouts, health insurance, training, etc. In some cases, vehicle costs can be billed in-rate (although more commonly vehicles are billed outside the rate). Some clients prefer to have non-labor charges pulled out of the bill rate (see Pass-Through), while some clients would rather have everything included in a single hourly charge.
Incident - An incident is not the same as an alarm. An incident is when footage or alarm data signifies to the security operator that an emergency response is required and that the response agreement with the end-user should be actioned. This may include criminal activity occurring on a site or an environmental emergency such as a fire.
Installer/Integrator/Maintainer - An individual or company responsible for installing a security system. In most instances the installer will also be responsible for the ongoing maintenance of a security system.
IP Camera - An Internet Protocol (IP) security camera is a digital camera that can send and receive data via a computer network and the Internet. IP cameras are considered more effective and advanced than analog cameras.
Keyholder - Individual(s) or a company authorized by the client/end user/customer to be contacted by the remote monitoring station or SOC when an incident occurs. Keyholders typically have nearby access to the facility being monitored and may also have physical possession of a Digital Key or Fob to activate or deactivate a site’s security system.
KPI or Key Performance Indicator(s) - KPIs are measurable expectations written into contract documentation that are intended to hold security vendors accountable for measurable benchmarks and milestones. For example, a security vendor may have KPI in their contract that requires them to ensure that the security officers assigned to the client’s sites check in for their shifts on time at least 96% of the time. KPIs are similar to SLAs.
Labor or Labor Rate(s) - Labor rates are the charges billed to a customer that are directly related to hourly labor performed by security personnel. Labor rates are typically derived as a Mark-up above a set of Wage Rate. Labor rates are differentiated from Non-Labor Charges.
License - See “Guard Card”.
Manned Security - When security guards are employed to be physically present at a site. This is different from remote monitoring or alarm monitoring, where only electronic security measures have been implemented at a site.
Margin - This is the difference between cost incurred by a security vendor for an item or service and the amount that vendor bills a client for that item or service. In the manned security environment, margin is the difference between the Wage Rate and the Bill Rate. For example, if a security officer earns a wage of $15 per hour and the bill rate to the customer is $21.75 per hour, the margin would be $6.75. Typically, a security provider’s margin is supposed to include all overhead costs, payroll taxes, insurance, etc. Security providers attempt to price their Bill Rates in such a way as to maximize margins. Sometimes (usually at a client’s request), certain costs can be pulled out of a bill rate and can be billed as a Pass-Through to reduce the overall bill rates. For comparison, see “In-Rate” and “Mark-up.”
Mark-up or Markup or Mark-up Percentage - This is a charge or fee, usually determined as a percentage that is billed above the base cost of either Labor or Non-Labor. For example, a Service Agreement might define the Bill Rate as being 140% of the Wage Rate. The difference between the Wage and Bill Rates is also referred to as the Margin. Non-Labor or Pass-Through costs can also be billed with a Mark-up.
Monitoring Platform - The software suite an operator will use to provide monitoring for a site – usually one specifically for CCTV monitoring and one for intrusion and fire alarm monitoring.
NBOT or UBOT - Non-Billable Overtime or NBOT (sometimes pronounced “EN-bot”) is overtime that must be paid to a security officer for working extra hours beyond a regular shift length – but can only be billed to the client at regular hourly rates. The security company is effectively losing money for every hour of NBOT, so they will try to do everything they can to avoid incurring NBOT. For reference and comparison, see “Billable Overtime” and “Overtime”. Some companies refer to NBOT as “unbillable overtime”, or UBOT.
Non-Billable Overtime - See “NBOT”, above.
Non-Labor or Non-Labor Charges - These are charges billed by a security company for anything that is not directly related to hourly labor. Typical non-labor charges could include vehicle monthly charges, mileage, fuel costs, hotel stays, PPE costs, charges for a Guard Tour System, etc. For comparison, see “Labor”.
Nuisance Alarm - An alarm received by a remote monitoring station or SOC, the cause of which cannot be identified and is thus filtered out. This alarm will not cause emergency services to be notified.
OC Spray or Pepper Spray - OC stands for “oleoresin capsicum”, which is a compound that causes irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat. OC spray or pepper spray can be deployed from a hand-held canister to temporarily blind or disable an assailant. There are many forms of OC spray, in varying degrees of potency, as well as forms that do not as readily disburse into the air– such as gel or foam – for use in confined or potentially sensitive spaces like mass transit or hospitals. The proper use of OC spray requires specific training. See “Armed” and “Unarmed”.
Officer - See “Security Officer.”
Open Site - These may be premises that do not have a full and secure barrier around the site’s perimeter. For example, business parks are rarely fully enclosed by a barrier when a CCTV system is set.
Operations Manager - This position typically reports to a District Manager or Client Service Manager and handles most or all of the scheduling for the accounts within that District Manager’s book of business.
Operator Node, or Station, or Desk - A desked area from which a security operator works. This area may include monitors to observe CCTV footage, computer terminals, emergency phones, radios, and audio equipment for issuing audio warnings. Alternatively, this area can be referred to as a “station,” “desk,” or “security desk.”
Outside the Rate - See “Pass-Through”.
Overtime - Under the terms of the FLSA, if a security officer works more than 40 hours in a single workweek, he/she is eligible to be paid those additional hours (above 40) at overtime rates. In some states, the overtime rule also applies for any hours worked beyond 8 hours in a standard workday. Overtime is calculated at 1.5 times the regular rate of pay. Therefore, if a security officer’s regular pay rate is $14.00 per hour, and that officer works 1 hour past the end of her regular 8-hour shift (because her Relief Officer was late to arrive), the security officer would receive 8 hours of regular pay at $14.00 per hour, plus 1 hour of overtime pay at $21.00 per hour for that shift. For comparison and reference, see “Billable Overtime” and “Non-Billable Overtime” or “NBOT”.
Pass-Through or Pass-Through Charge(s) - These are generally Non-Labor Charges that are billed to a client in addition to the regular labor rate (instead of being included in the basic hourly Bill Rate). Typically, they can include charges for such things as vehicles, mileage, hotel stays, health insurance, vacation payouts, etc. For reference, see “In the Rate”. Pass-through charges can be billed with or without a Mark-Up, depending upon the language in the Service Agreement.
Patrol - This refers to a route that a security officer would take during his/her shift to check paces of interest, concern, or vulnerability. Patrols can be conducted while walking on foot (a “Foot Patrol”) or using a vehicle (a “Vehicular Patrol”). Sometimes, security officers will employ a Guard Tour System while conducting their patrols.
Pepper Spray - See “OC Spray”.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) - Security & Guard - These are items provided to an employee to satisfy safety standards in a particular environment. Examples are safety glasses, non-slip shoes, steel toe boots, reflective vests, hard hats, filter masks, flame resistant clothing, etc.
PPE - See “Personal Protective Equipment”.
Price Increase - This is an increase to the hourly bill rates invoiced to a customer as part of a service agreement. Price Increases are typically scheduled on the anniversary of the agreement and are sometimes spelled out in that agreement.
PTZ - See “Functional Camera”.
QBR or Quarterly Business Review - This is presentation given by a security vendor on a quarterly basis to a specific client that is intended to be a summary of the previous quarter’s service delivery, financials, and any SLA or KPI metrics. QBRs are a way for clients to try to hold their security vendor(s) accountable for expected metrics and milestones.
Relief Officer - This is an officer who is assigned to arrive at the end of another officer’s shift – to relieve them of their duties and take over for the next shift. For example, Officer Singh is scheduled to work from 0800 to 1600. Officer Jenkins (the Relief Officer) arrives at 1600 to take over from Officer Singh. Officer Jenkins then works from 1600 to 0000, at which time Officer Romanov (the next Relief Officer) arrives to take over from Officer Jenkins. Officer Romanov then works from 0000 to 0800, at which time she is relieved by Officer Singh (who is returning to the site as the next relief officer).
Remote Monitoring Station - Synonymous with Alarm Receiving Center (ARC) and Security Operations Center (SOC), this is a location that monitors signals received from a variety of security and other remotely based systems. The remote monitoring station is manned 24/7 by security professionals who monitor, analyze and act upon signals received from sites whose security systems they monitor.
Remote Video Response - An action completed at a remote video response center. Remote video response is when an intruder or environmental disturbance is detected via a security system. The video of this intruder is transmitted to the remote video response center. The operator verifies that there is an intruder and responds appropriately. See also “SOC”.
RFP or Request for Proposal - A solicitation sent out by a client to potential security vendors, asking them to provide written bids or proposals for security work. An RFP typically lists the Scope of Work to be performed, the type of coverage needed (such as unarmed, armed, foot patrol, vehicular patrol, remote monitoring, etc.), the Hours Per Week of service – and asks the vendor(s) to provide proposed pricing and plans to satisfy those requirements.
Satellite or Satellite Office - This is a typically the smallest local office of a manned security vendor. A satellite office usually has minimal or no permanent staffing and is often used for local storage of uniforms, equipment, and paperwork – and can serve as a place to conduct interviews, training, operate patrols, etc. Satellite offices are often in more remote areas and are, by definition, a part of a larger regional office structure – usually functioning under a Branch Office or Field Office.
Schedule or Security Schedule - In a manned security environment, this refers to the overall shift structure and work hours for all the security officers assigned to a particular client facility. The security schedule for a site typically includes all security personnel, including officers, supervisors, and leads – and covers a set workweek. A security schedule is comprised of sequential and/or concurrent 8-hour shifts but can also include 10- and 12-hour shifts, as appropriate. All of the work hours in a site’s schedule should equal the overall HPW of the site.
Scope of Work or Statement of Work (SOW) - This is a portion of a contract document, sometimes added as an Amendment, that describes the extent of the security services that are to be performed by a vendor at a particular location. An SOW will typically include such details as the location(s) where service will be performed, total HPW by site/location/position, security Schedules, responsibilities of security staff, etc. An SOW may also list all permitted billing/pricing and Bill Rates by position/location.
Security Officer (SO) or Officer or Security Guard (SG) or Security Professional (SP) or Guard - These are all terms used to describe employees of a manned security vendor who act in a protective capacity, providing physical security services. Security Officers typically wear some sort of Uniform but can also be in plain clothes. In most states, Security Officers must have a License or Guard Card.
Security Operator or SOC Operator - A security operator is an employee of the remote monitoring station or SOC who monitors the operator nodes during a day or night shift. Security operators will man the remote monitoring station and monitor alarms and footage 24/7, provide dispatch communications services, etc. Typically, SOC operators have different skillsets than standard security officers.
Security System - A system that aims to protect a site from threats to the site. This system can be a connected network of cameras, audio output devices, access control systems, fire alarms, temperature and humidity gauges, intruder alarms and other devices designed to detect unusual activity and respond to that activity.
Shift Differential - This is additional pay (above a typical pay rate) offered by a security vendor for shifts that are considered less desirable, such as evenings and weekends. Shift differential is used as an incentive to encourage employees to take less desirable shifts in a Schedule.
Site Owner - The individual who occupies a site, who is not necessarily contracted into the remote monitoring agreement unless they are also the customer. For example, a contract may be set up between a remote monitoring station and a facilities management company. The facilities management company will be the customer but the tenant on the site will be the site owner.
SLA or Service Level Agreement(s) - SLAs are measurable expectations written into contract documentation that are intended to hold security vendors accountable for measurable benchmarks and milestones. For example, a security vendor may have an SLA in their contract that requires a security vendor to replace any terminated security officer within one week of his/her departure. SLAs are similar to KPIs.
SOC or Security Operations Center - Alternatively pronounced “sock” or “S.O.C.”, this is a facility staffed by a security vendor that provides communications and monitoring support for a security operation. SOCs can provide a variety of services, but typically they would include some or all of the following: video camera (CCTV) monitoring, alarm monitoring, telephone or radio dispatch, patrol dispatch, scheduling confirmation, and emergency call support. Usually, SOCs are equipped with multiple television or computer monitors, multiple phone lines, and redundant communications options. Some SOCs are located at the site they support, while others remotely support multiple locations, potentially even nationwide or internationally. If a SOC covers multiple facilities internationally, it may be referred to as a GSOC (Global Security Operations Center). Typically, SOCs are staffed with security personnel who have special communications-oriented skillsets that may differ from standard security officer expertise. See “GSOC”.
Tactical Vest - See “Ballistic Vest”.
Taser™ - This is the brand name of a hand-held, non-lethal weapon that can be used to electrically stun or incapacitate an assailant. Other similar devices with different names are on the market, but Taser™ is the brand most commonly used by law enforcement and security personnel. For comparison, see “Armed” and “Unarmed”.
Tour - See “Guard Tour”.
UBOT - See “NBOT”.
Unarmed or Unarmed Officer - This refers to manned security services where the security officers do not carry or use a firearm. In some cases, the term unarmed can mean that the officers are not permitted to carry any form of protective or defensive equipment (such as Batons, OC spray, Taser™, etc.). For comparison, see “Armed”.
Uniform or Security Officer Uniform - This is the uniform (shirt, pants, shoes, jacket, etc.) that a security officer wears while on-duty. Security officer uniforms vary from “hard look” or “police style” uniforms with collared shirts and badges, to “soft look” uniforms, such as polo shirts with khaki pants or sport coats with slacks. Some clients have particular uniform preferences, usually to help blend into – or stand out from – an established corporate culture or dress code. Some states have strict requirements for uniform specifications, embroidered patches, use of company logos, etc.
Vehicular Patrol - This is a driving route that a security officer would take during his/her shift to check places of interest, concern, or vulnerability. The vehicle used could be a car, truck, or SUV; a golf cart; an ATV; a Segway™ or similar electric vehicle; or even a bicycle. Typically, the type of vehicle is specified in the contract or scope of work. Also see “Patrol”. Sometimes, security officers will employ a Guard Tour System while conducting their vehicular patrols.
Video Analytics - Software that automatically detects intruders or unusual activity by interpreting movement and other variables. The software will identify the nature of the threat and alert the security operator via video footage.
Video Motion Detection (VMD) - Not to be confused with video analytics. Video motion detection uses the camera’s image to identify alarms, as does video analytics. However, most VMD systems are fairly crude and can cause a high number of false alarms.
Visually Confirmed/Verified - When an individual, normally located remotely and at a remote video response center, confirms the cause of an alarm by viewing an image/footage from CCTV cameras. This is an important part of the remote video response process as it ensures the emergency services are only called when an intruder/hazard has been visually identified on site.
Wage Rate - This is the amount of money that a security officer earns for every hour he/she works. Wage rates can vary significantly from position and level of experience, as well as geographic areas. For example, an entry-level security officer in some areas of the country might only earn only $10 per hour, but a more experienced security officer or supervisor with special skills or certifications in a large metropolitan area could earn more than $30 per hour. For comparison, see “Bill Rate.”.

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