Expense Category
Uniform Rental Services
Waste & Recycling Services
Pest Control Services
Security & Guard Services
Energy & Utilities Services
168 - This is a shorthand term to refer to a manned security coverage plan or Schedule that provides 24/7 coverage with one (1) officer at a time – in other words: 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, which equals 168 hours in a week. Because this is such a common coverage plan, it is sometimes referred to simply as “a 168.”
208 - This is a shorthand term to refer to a manned security coverage plan or Schedule that provides 24/7 coverage with one (1) regular officer at a time, plus one (1) supervisor who works one 40-hour shift per week – in other words: [24 hours per day, 7 days per week, equaling 168 hours in a week], plus [8 hours per day, 5 days per week, equaling 40 hours per week], which totals 208 hours per week. This is sometimes referred to simply as “a 208.”
336 - This is a shorthand term to refer to a manned security coverage plan or Schedule that provides 24/7 coverage with two (2) officers at a time – in other words: 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, with 2 officers, which equals 336 hours in a week. This is sometimes referred to simply as “a 336.”
40-Hour Week - This is the most common and basic work week length in the manned security industry (generally comprising five 8-hour workdays). Per the FLSA, hours worked over the standard 40 within one calendar week must be paid to the employee as Overtime.
504 - This is a shorthand term to refer to a manned security coverage plan or Schedule that provides 24/7 coverage with three (3) officers at a time – in other words: 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, with 3 officers, which equals 504 hours in a week. This is sometimes referred to simply as “a 504.”
8-Hour Shift - This is the most common and basic shift length in the manned security industry. In some cases, a standard 8-hour shift will include a paid, “working” lunch period. In some other cases, the actual length of the standard shift is 8.5 hours, with a 30-minute unpaid and unbilled lunch break (so the officer still only gets paid for 8 hours – and the client is only billed for 8 hours). Depending upon the labor laws in particular states, sometimes hours worked over the standard 8 in a single day must be paid to the employee as Overtime.
"A" Grade Garment - These are brand new uniforms that have not previously been issued to another customer.
Abuse, Damage or Ruin Charges - These are charges for merchandise which was either deliberately ruined or damaged beyond normal wear and tear. Uniform companies will frequently attempt to assess these charges for uniforms that are simply worn out. This is a key revenue driver for uniform companies and a large variable in customer billing.
Access Control or Access Control System - A security system installed at a site to provide access to authorized individuals or deny access to those not verbally, visually, or electronically verified/authorized. Modern computerized access control systems use programmed keycards and ID badges for controlled and tracked access within a facility. Older access control systems are simple manual protocols involving speakers, cameras, call buttons, and remote buzzer entry doors.
Aeration - The process used to ventilate a structure or container that has been fumigated. This process must be completed by a Licensed Pest Control Operator.
Alarm Receiving Center (ARC) - A center that receives information from alarm systems. These centers (also commonly known as central station) are manned 24/7 by security operators who receive and act upon the information as necessary. An ARC will receive an alarm signal, when the detectors have been activated at a site. The ARC’s operators will then respond accordingly to this signal, which may mean contacting the relevant keyholders, emergency services, or the site owner. Some ARCs are part of a facility’s SOC or GSOC. See “SOC”.
All-inclusive Rate or Flat Rate - A monthly or per haul rate that is void of any additional charges/fees such as Administrative, Container Usage, Disposal, Fuel, Environmental, etc.
Area Supervisor or Field Supervisor or Area Captain - An overhead supervisory position that is not associated with a specific client account – but instead oversees or assists multiple security accounts. The Area Supervisor usually drives a company-supplied vehicle and is often traveling, check on service sites, delivering uniforms and equipment, and handling disciplinary issues. Some Area Supervisors also assist with scheduling. Typically, an Area Supervisor works out of a single Field Office or Branch Office.
Area Vice President or AVP - This is a field executive position at a security vendor. An AVP is usually responsible for one or more Field Offices in a general geographic area. An AVP is also financially responsible for one or more P&Ls. Customarily, the direct reports to an AVP will be General Managers and Branch Managers.
Armed or Armed Officer - This refers to manned security services where the security officers are equipped with a firearm (gun) while on duty. Typically, the firearms carried are handguns, but in rare cases, armed officers may carry rifles or shotguns. In many cases, in addition to a firearm, armed officers will also carry other forms of protective or defensive equipment (such as Batons, OC spray, Taser™, etc.). In most states, armed officers require specific additional training and certification. Typically, armed officers also wear Ballistic Vests while on duty. For comparison, see “Unarmed”.
Auto-Renewal, Evergreen or Rollover Clause - A contractual provision that automatically extends a contract beyond the initial or current term. Beware—standard waste services agreements usually contain automatic renewal provisions for successive and perpetual renewal periods equal to the initial term, typically 36 months. These clauses remain continuously in effect unless the customer sends a cancellation notification to the vendor by Certified Mail during a prescribed window of time.
Automatic Replacement Percentage (ARPL) or Inventory Maintenance (IM) - This is a percent of the inventory that will be charged automatically to the customer each delivery for replacement of a specific inventory of merchandise. The intent is to cover merchandise that is regularly lost. The percentage may or may not accurately reflect true loss rates. This can be another revenue driver and large variable to customer billing.
"B" Grade Garment - These uniforms have been previously issued to another customer. They should be in good and usable condition.
Bailer - A piece of equipment used to compress and form recycled material into bales.
Ballistic Vest or Body Armor or Bulletproof Vest - A ballistic vest is a piece of equipment worn on the torso that is intended to protect the wearer against bullets and other projectiles. Some ballistic vests (known as “internal vests”) are worn under clothing and are intended to be concealed from view; other ballistic vests (known as “external vests” or “tactical vests”) are worn on the outside of the clothing and are clearly visible. Note that the term “bulletproof vest” is a misnomer – no ballistic vest provides complete protection against all types of projectiles. Ballistic vests are rated by their resistance to increasingly more potent projectiles, with Type I being the least protective level of armor, Type IIA being the next more protective level, and so on, up to Type IV, which is the most robust body armor rating. See “Armed”.
Basis - Cost difference between Henry Hub (see “Henry Hub (HH)”) and point of reference, or delivery point.
Baton - This is a handheld defensive weapon that is a cylindrical club made of wood, rubber, plastic, or metal, which can be used to deliver blunt force strikes to an assailant. There are many types of batons, ranging from bats, truncheons, tonfas, and nightsticks, to telescoping expandable metal batons – sometimes referred to as ASPs (after a company name associated with their production). Some states ban the use of batons by security officers, while others require additional certification and training. See “Armed” and “Unarmed”.
Bill Rate - This is the hourly rate charged to a customer by a manned security provider for an hour of labor, by position. It is different from the Wage Rate. For example, a security officer may earn an hourly Wage of $15, but the security company could have a Bill Rate for that position of $21.75. The difference between the Wage Rate and the Bill Rate is referred to alternately as the Margin or the Mark-Up.
Billable Overtime - This is Overtime that is both payable to the security officer at overtime rates AND billable to a client at overtime bill rates (typically 1.5 times the regular bill rate). Because most overtime is not billable (see “NBOT”), billable overtime is generally the exception in the manned security industry and must be specifically permitted in the contract or agreement. For comparison and reference, see “Overtime” and “NBOT”.
Blend - This is a term associated with garments that are a blend of two or more fabrics. Generally, is it used to describe a 65% polyester/35% cotton garment. These are the most common uniforms.
Body Armor - See “Ballistic Vest”.
Branch Manager - This is typically a senior manager position at a security vendor, just below the executive level. A Branch Manager typically reports to a General Manager or Area Vice President. A Branch Manager usually is responsible for a Branch or Field Office and the staff working from that office. Customarily, the direct reports to a Branch Manager will be Operations Managers or Area Supervisors.
Branch or Branch Office - This is a typically a small regional office of a security vendor. Branch offices are usually managed by a Branch Manager and have minimal overhead staffing. Branch offices usually exist as a local outpost to provide operations support, equipment and uniform storage, and possibly a vehicle patrol hub for a specific area. Usually, a Branch Office is part of a regional structure that is part of a larger Field Office.
Branch, Depot or Satellite - This is a uniform provider location that does not process merchandise. These are typically outposts where clean merchandise is delivered by the processing plant and soiled merchandise is picked up. This enables the uniform provider to extend their service territory. The service provided by a branch is typically not as reliable as service provided directly from a processing plant due to complications related to product availability and turnaround time.
Bulky Waste - Large items of municipal solid waste such as appliances, furniture, large auto parts, tree stumps etc., which cannot be handled by normal collection methods.
Bulletproof Vest - See “Ballistic Vest”.
"C" Garment - These uniforms are damaged beyond industry standards. They may be used in high damage environments to reduce overall cost. For example, a company that works with adhesives that will ruin every garment may elect to use “C” garments to avoid damage charges.
Capacity - How much maximum instantaneous energy will be needed for operations.
CCTV – Closed Circuit Television - The use of cameras to transmit a closed signal to a specific end point. The signal is not ‘open’, so it can only be received by authorized end points. The signal may be transmitted from one point to another (point to point), from one point to multipoint or via wireless links. In a security environment, CCTV systems are typically connected to a network of security cameras.
Change Rate - Contractual pricing based on a change of garments, not the total inventory. I.E. An employee is assigned 11 shirts, but only billed for 5 changes. This unit rate for a per-change program is higher than the unit rates for a per-piece program.
Changes - This is the number of workdays for a given employee that need to be covered by the uniform program. If an employee works 5 days, this employee will be given an inventory providing for 5 “changes” of uniforms for his rental program.
Clean-Out - A treatment designed to remove all pests from a facility, usually done at the onset of a new account start up, and which requires multiple team members to complete.
Client Service Manager (CSM) - See “District Manager”.
Closed Site - A location that is entirely surrounded by a barrier and by a CCTV system covering all areas. The barriers must be secure, such as effective security fencing.
Cloth Roll Towel (CRT) or Long Continuous Towel (LCT) - These are cloth towels typically used to dry hands in the restroom of a manufacturing environment.
Collection - The process of picking up waste from residences, businesses, loading them into a vehicle, and transporting them to a processing site, transfer station or landfill.
Commodity - The physical electrons or methane molecules.
Commodity - A waste stream that has some recycling market value.
Commodity Rebate - Monies refunded to a customer based on the value of the recyclable materials recovered.
Composting - The controlled, organic digestion of materials such as grass clippings, food wastes, and lawn debris.
Construction and Demolition Waste - Waste that is primarily received from construction sites. Some examples of C&D waste include concrete, drywall, rebar, wood, paneling, linoleum, and carpet.
Consumer Price Index (CPI) - This is a public index produced by the Federal Bureau of Labor statistics relating to inflation. Beware: standard waste agreements typically entail annual price increases equal to the CPI or a fixed percentage, whichever is higher.
Container Service or Container Use Fees - A hauler-added fee or surcharge represented by vendors as reimbursement for their container ownership and maintenance activities.
Cotton - This term is generally used to describe a garment that is 100% cotton. These uniforms are used in a heavy manufacturing environment, where 65/35 blend garments will not be safe.
Cubic Footage - Calculated as length X width X height, this calculation is used to determine volume to be treated for foggings and fumigations
Cubic Yard (CY) - Measurement (length X width X height) frequently used to for waste volume and/or container size.
Customer Owned Good (COG) or Not Our Goods (NOG) - These are items the customer owns and turn in to the uniform company for cleaning. Charges for cleaning COG or NOG products are assessed on a per-item-cleaned basis.
Damage - See “Abuse.”
Defoliating - Killing or artificially accelerating the drying of plant tissues, with or without causing abscission.
Depot - See “Branch.”
Deregulated Market - Open market; able to “shop” commodity.
Detector - Part of an intrusion detection system, a detector recognizes an incident or event on a site. A detector does not record footage from a site; instead, it communicates the data to a CCTV camera, which begins recording. In turn, this footage is transferred to the remote monitoring station or a SOC. A detector can recognize many different changes on site from movement to temperature and humidity, depending on the needs of the site.
Device - Any trap or tool used to capture or track movement of a pest, e.g., snap traps, glue boards, light traps, etc.
Digital Key/Key Fob/Fob - This is a portable device used by security installers and integrators to ‘set’ or ‘unset’ a security system or remotely monitored CCTV system. To set or unset a system means to activate or deactivate the system – setting the system will allow the remote monitoring station or SOC to receive alarms and footage.
Digital Video Recorder (DVR) or Network Video Recorder (NVR) - Both act as a video recorder and central point for CCTV systems.
Direct Sale Products - These are items purchased outright—and not rented—by the customer.
Disposal Fee - A fee charged to the customers at a landfill or transfer station, usually associated with roll-off activities.
District Manager (DM) or Client Service Manager (CSM) - Security & Guard - This is an operations position within a security vendor’s structure that is responsible for managing all aspects of service delivery for client contracts within a defined geographic area, usually associated with a specific Field Office or Branch Office. One or more DMs or CSMs report to a General Manager or Area Vice President. Reporting to the DMs or CSMs will usually be one or more Operations Managers, as well as Area Supervisors and Patrol Supervisors.
District Manager (DM) or Route Manager (RM) - Waste & Recycling - This is the direct supervisor of the employees who perform the actual hauling activities.
District Manager (DM), Route Manager (RM) or Service Manager (SM) - Uniform Rental - This is the direct supervisor of the delivery personnel for the uniform provider.
Driver, Route Sales Representative (RSR) or Service Sales Representative (SSR) - This is the person that makes the weekly deliveries to the customer and is generally responsible for servicing the account.
Drum - A container or a barrel (typically mild steel or plastic) in which special or hazardous waste is stored.
Emblem - This is the common term for a name tag or a company logo that is sewn on the chest of uniforms.
Emblem Charge - These are the fees assessed to purchase and apply name tags (name emblems) or company logo’s (company emblem.
End User/Customer/Client - An individual or company who makes use of the services provided by security provider. They will have entered into a contractual agreement with the vendor providing the security services, which may range from manned security to remote monitoring, or a range of manned and electronic services, as necessary.
Environmental Charge - Waste & Recycling - A vendor-added fee or surcharge not sanctioned by any governmental agency. Waste disposal vendors frequently represent this charge as reimbursement for their “regulatory compliance” activities.
Environmental Charge, Fuel Surcharge, Service Charge or Wastewater Charge - Uniform Rental - These are various fees assessed by uniform providers to cover items such as gas, utilities and wastewater fluctuations. This is a key revenue driver for the providers and a potentially large variable to a customer’s overall cost.
Event - In an alarm-monitoring scenario, an “Event” starts when an operator answers an alarm. One event may contain many alarms subsequent to the first alarm. After all the alarms in an event have been investigated and no new alarms are received, the event is closed, and a relevant outcome is assigned to that event. At this point, the event may become an incident or be closed as a false alert or nuisance alarm.
Evergreen Clause - See “Auto-Renewal”
Evergreen, Auto-renewal, or Rollover clause - This is a clause in the agreement that can automatically extend a contract beyond the initial end date. Beware—standard uniform agreements contain automatic renewal provisions for successive and perpetual renewal periods equal to the initial term, typically 60 months.
Exchanges or Size Changes - This is a request from a uniform wearer to change the size, color or style of existing garments. It requires the uniform provider to order a complete new set of garments. This is costly for uniform suppliers, and they typically drag their feet in providing this service that is supposed to be a part of a standard rental program.
Extra Pickup (XPU) - Extra pickup of a regularly scheduled container (over and above the scheduled frequency).
Extra Yardage - Extra waste picked up outside the container and charged by the estimated quantity of cubic yardage, as determined by the driver.
Facilities Services Products (FS) - These are products such as mats, mops, shop towels and other products supplier by uniform vendors which are not garments or linen.
False Alert or False Alarm - A false alert is when an alarm condition is raised but the condition is cancelled by the remote alarm receiving center. A false alert is different from a Nuisance Alarm.
Field Office - A larger main regional office of a security vendor. Field offices are usually managed either by a General Manager or an Area Vice President and are staffed with multiple overhead support positions (including HR, Operations, Admin, Training, etc.). Field offices may sometimes have Branch Offices or Satellite Offices beneath them in the vendor’s organizational structure. Often, a field office and all of the clients it serves make up the basis for a local or field-level P&L.
Fixed Price - Same cost for every unit of electricity or natural gas. Some or all elements (commodity, transmission, compliance, etc.) can be fixed.
Flame-Resistant Clothing (FRC) or Flame-Resistant Garment (FRG) - This is a request from a uniform wearer to change the size, color or style of existing garments. It requires the uniform provider to order a complete new set of garments. This is costly for uniform suppliers, and they typically drag their feet in providing this service that is supposed to be a part of a standard rental program.
Flat Rate - Uniform Rental - This is a flat fee assessed for a particular inventory of clothing. If a contract calls for a change rate of $1.00 and an employee has 5 changes, you may see a flat rate of $5.00 on the invoice.
Flat Rate - Waste & Recycling - See “All-inclusive Rate”
Flow Control - Laws and ordinances used to direct solid waste to a certain facility for disposal.
FLSA - This stands for Fair Labor Standards Act, which is a United States labor law that created the right to a minimum wage, and "time-and-a-half" Overtime pay when employees work more than forty (40) hours per week.
Fogging - A space treatment intended to kill insects or spiders on contact but which does not penetrate walls and packaging.
Foot Patrol - This is a walking route that a security officer would take during his/her shift to check places of interest, concern, or vulnerability. See “Patrol”. Sometimes, security officers will employ a Guard Tour System while conducting their patrols.
Franchise Area - A defined and restricted area where the solid waste activities and pricing are controlled by a municipal body. Customers typically have no ability to negotiate their waste disposal costs in franchise areas.
Front-End Load (FEL) - The most common type of vehicle and container combination in which waste is dumped into the top front area of the truck as the container is lifted overhead.
FSMA - Food Safety Modernization Act. FSMA shifted the focus from responding to foodborne illnesses to preventing them and impacts almost every business that must register with the FDA. The updated rule now requires food facilities to have a written food safety plan that includes a hazard analysis as well as preventive controls for a proactive approach to food safety.
Fuel Surcharge - Uniform Rental - See “Environmental Charge.”
Fuel Surcharge - Waste & Recycling - A hauler-added fee or surcharge not sanctioned by any governmental agency. Waste haulers typically tie this charge to the fuel index at or simply set an arbitrary percentage.
Fumigation - A space treatment using deadly gas to penetrate walls and packaging in order to kill any and all insects that may be located inside the treatment zone.
Functional Camera or PTZ - Functional cameras are very important for the remote monitoring station or SOC as they allow operators to pan, tilt, and zoom (also known as PTZ) the camera. This allows the operator to view a wider section of the site and in more detail, depending on the technical specification of the functional camera itself.
Fungicide - Any substance that kills fungi or inhibits the growth or reproduction of spores.
Fungus/Fungi - Any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes unicellular microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as multicellular fungi that produce familiar forms known as mushrooms.
General Manager (GM) - Security & Guard - This is an executive position – typically the most junior executive level in a security vendor’s hierarchy. A General Manager is usually in charge of operations for a specific geographic region, which usually contains a Branch or Field Office and possibly one or more Satellite Offices. In many cases, the GM position is the lowest level in a security organization that has P&L responsibility and accountability. Customarily, the direct reports to a GM will be Branch Managers, District Managers, or Operations Managers.
General Manager (GM) - Uniform Rental - This individual is typically the head of the supplier’s processing operation and is the supervisor of the managers who oversee the delivery personnel and the production facility.
General Manager (GM) - Waste & Recycling - This individual is typically the supervisor of the managers who oversee the service personnel and the administrative functions for a defined service area.
GFSI - Global Food Safety Initiative. GFSI sets the standard for food safety worldwide and is the governing body that certifies each of the Brand Audit standards listed below:
  • BRC- British Retail Consortium (3rd Party Audit Standard)
  • SQF- Safe Quality Foods (3rd Party Audit Standard)
  • AIB- American Institute of Baking (3rd party Audit Standard)
GSOC - Stands for Global Security Operations Center. Typically pronounced “JEE-sock”. See “SOC.”
Guard - See “Security Officer.”
Guard Card or Guard License or License - In most U.S. states, a security officer must acquire and maintain a license from the state or county in which they live or plan to work as a security officer. This license is sometimes referred to as a “Guard Card.” Licensure requirements vary from state to state, and some states require an additional license or certification if the officer will be working in an Armed capacity.
Guard Tour or “Tour” - This is a predefined patrol route that a security officer is expected to perform at least once (but usually multiple times) during his/her shift. A guard tour is typically performed as part of a Foot Patrol, but some guard tours can be accomplished using a patrol vehicle, golf cart, bicycle, or other conveyance. Typical guard tours have various key points along the way that the security officer is supposed to check, such as doors, gates, storage rooms, machinery, equipment, etc. Often, guard tours are recorded and validated using a Guard Tour System.
Guard Tour System - This is typically an electronic, handheld device or smartphone app that allows a security guard to scan points along a predetermined patrol route (indoors or outdoors) to confirm that the patrol and all of the points within that patrol have been covered. These systems can scan adhesive barcodes/stickers, RFID tags, NFC tags, or even QR codes. There are multiple types of these systems, some of which use proprietary hardware, and some that are apps on smartphones. Among them are Secure Trax (G4S), HeliAUS (Allied Universal), Vision (Securitas), gTrack (GardaWorld), SilverTrac (3rd party), QR Patrol (3rd party), the PIPE (3rd party), TrackForce Valiant (3rd party), and others.
Hauling Fee - A fee charged to roll-off accounts, calculated based on the amount of time it takes to pick up roll-off container(s) or compactor(s), dispose of the waste, and return the container(s) to the customer.
Hazardous Waste (HW) - Manifested waste materials such as harmful liquids, powders or solids that must be treated to make them inert, and which are prohibited from all Sanitary Landfills, Subtitle D Landfills and Transfer Stations.
Hedging - The act of fixing all or a portion of electricity or natural gas consumption.
Henry Hub (HH) - The most liquid natural gas trading hub in the US, serving as a benchmark for natural gas prices around the world.
Hours per Week (or HPW) - This refers to Hours per Week of security services, which means the total number of billable labor hours provided by security officers at a client facility in a single weekly period. For example, if a security vendor is providing service 8 hours per day, 7 days per week, the total service at that facility would be 56 HPW.
Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) - Small quantities of materials such as paint, pesticides, herbicides and flammables used in common everyday applications, and which are prohibited from all Sanitary Landfills, Subtitle D Landfills and Transfer Stations.
ID Tape - This is a tag pressed onto the garment which identifies the route number, the account number and the employee number.
In the Rate(s) or In-Rate - This refers to any Non-Labor charges that are included in the overall hourly Bill Rate for security services. These charges could include equipment (phones, radios, etc.), vacation payouts, health insurance, training, etc. In some cases, vehicle costs can be billed in-rate (although more commonly vehicles are billed outside the rate). Some clients prefer to have non-labor charges pulled out of the bill rate (see Pass-Through), while some clients would rather have everything included in a single hourly charge.
Incident - An incident is not the same as an alarm. An incident is when footage or alarm data signifies to the security operator that an emergency response is required and that the response agreement with the end-user should be actioned. This may include criminal activity occurring on a site or an environmental emergency such as a fire.
Index - Floating, market-based rate driven by supply and demand.
Insect Light Traps (ILTs) - The light traps that are installed on the inside of a facility to attract insects and catch them on glue boards.
Insects - A class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. They are among the most diverse groups of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms
Installer/Integrator/Maintainer - An individual or company responsible for installing a security system. In most instances the installer will also be responsible for the ongoing maintenance of a security system.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) - An ecosystem-based strategy that focuses on long-term prevention of pests or their damage through a combination of techniques such as biological control, habitat manipulation, modification of cultural practices, and the use of resistant varieties. Pesticides are used only after monitoring indicates that they are needed according to established guidelines, and treatments are made with the goal of removing only the target organism. Pest control materials are selected and applied in a manner that minimizes risk to human health, beneficial and non-target organisms, and the environment.
Inventory Maintenance (IM) - See “Automatic Replacement Percentage.”
Investor-Owned Utility (IOU) - Vertically-integrated, for-profit entities that own and generate power, transmit the electricity once it is generated, and then distribute it to residential, commercial, and industrial consumers.
IP Camera - An Internet Protocol (IP) security camera is a digital camera that can send and receive data via a computer network and the Internet. IP cameras are considered more effective and advanced than analog cameras.
Item Code - This is an alpha numeric code that identifies the rental or direct sale item.
Keyholder - Individual(s) or a company authorized by the client/end user/customer to be contacted by the remote monitoring station or SOC when an incident occurs. Keyholders typically have nearby access to the facility being monitored and may also have physical possession of a Digital Key or Fob to activate or deactivate a site’s security system.
Kilowatt (KW) - Maximum instantaneous power draw over 15-, 30- or 60-minute period.
Kilowatt-hour (kWh) - Electricity unit of measurement. 1 kilowatt-hour = 1 kilowatt of electricity consumed for one hour.
KPI or Key Performance Indicator(s) - KPIs are measurable expectations written into contract documentation that are intended to hold security vendors accountable for measurable benchmarks and milestones. For example, a security vendor may have KPI in their contract that requires them to ensure that the security officers assigned to the client’s sites check in for their shifts on time at least 96% of the time. KPIs are similar to SLAs.
Labor or Labor Rate(s) - Labor rates are the charges billed to a customer that are directly related to hourly labor performed by security personnel. Labor rates are typically derived as a Mark-up above a set of Wage Rate. Labor rates are differentiated from Non-Labor Charges.
Landfill (or “Dump”) - A low area of land that is built up from deposits of solid refuse in layers covered by soil.
Lease Program - This program is designed to provide merchandise to a customer that does not wish to have a cleaning service but also does not wish to manage direct sale inventories. Lease programs typically include include mending, size changes and upgrading. All cleaning of soiled garments is handled by the customer.
Least-Toxic Alternatives - Pesticides are ranked by toxicity level to humans, mammals, and beneficial organisms. The least-toxic alternative pesticide(s) is a chemical that is non-toxic to humans or non-target organism. It is used as a last resort after non-chemical effort(s).
License - See “Guard Card”.
Licensee - A pest control professional who is licensed by his/her state’s Department of Agriculture and is the responsible party under the law as it relates to performance of pest control services.
Linear Footage - Measurement used to calculate exterior footage for termite or power spray treatments. Linear Footage is the straight-line measurement of the number of feet intended for treatment.
Liquidated Damages - Uniform Rental - This is a payment of an agreed upon sum of money as damages for breaching a contract. Beware: liquidated damages in standard uniform agreements typically call for a customer to pay the supplier 50% of the average weekly spend times the number of weeks remaining in the contract term.
Liquidated Damages - Waste & Recycling - This is a payment of an agreed upon sum of money as damages for breaching a service agreement. Beware--standard waste service agreements call for liquidated damages equal to 100% of the average monthly spend times the remaining term in the agreement (sometimes with a cap of six months).
Local Distribution Company (LDC) - Entity which owns and operates the distribution system of poles, wires and/or pipes. LDCs themselves are always regulated, regardless of market.
Lock Bar - An optional feature of front-load containers that allows a customer to lock the container. When the container is raised up and over the front-end loader truck, gravity causes the bar to drop allowing the container to be emptied.
Long Continuous Towel (LCT) - See “Continuous Roll Towel.”
Loss Charges - These are charges for merchandise that was lost by the customer. This is another revenue stream for uniform providers and a large variable to customer spend. Merchandise may be “missing,” but it is often very difficult to determine who “lost” the items. Beware: uniform providers will often attempt to assess loss charges for all “missing” items.
Manned Security - When security guards are employed to be physically present at a site. This is different from remote monitoring or alarm monitoring, where only electronic security measures have been implemented at a site.
Margin - This is the difference between cost incurred by a security vendor for an item or service and the amount that vendor bills a client for that item or service. In the manned security environment, margin is the difference between the Wage Rate and the Bill Rate. For example, if a security officer earns a wage of $15 per hour and the bill rate to the customer is $21.75 per hour, the margin would be $6.75. Typically, a security provider’s margin is supposed to include all overhead costs, payroll taxes, insurance, etc. Security providers attempt to price their Bill Rates in such a way as to maximize margins. Sometimes (usually at a client’s request), certain costs can be pulled out of a bill rate and can be billed as a Pass-Through to reduce the overall bill rates. For comparison, see “In-Rate” and “Mark-up.”
Mark-up or Markup or Mark-up Percentage - This is a charge or fee, usually determined as a percentage that is billed above the base cost of either Labor or Non-Labor. For example, a Service Agreement might define the Bill Rate as being 140% of the Wage Rate. The difference between the Wage and Bill Rates is also referred to as the Margin. Non-Labor or Pass-Through costs can also be billed with a Mark-up.
Material Recycling Facility (MRF) - A facility where recyclable commodities are dumped, sorted, bailed and marketed for reuse.
Mating Disruption - Lures containing certain sex pheromones placed strategically around the interior of a facility to prevent insects from finding viable mates.
Methane - A gas byproduct generated through natural decomposition of solid waste. In landfills, this gas is accumulated and either burned off using a flare or is converted to energy by waste-to-energy plants.
Missed Pick-up (MPU) - Normally scheduled service that has been missed.
Monitoring Platform - The software suite an operator will use to provide monitoring for a site – usually one specifically for CCTV monitoring and one for intrusion and fire alarm monitoring.
Monitors - Typically glue boards which capture rodents or insects and are placed temporarily, if and when a pest issue is suspected.
Monthly Container Yards (MCY) - Unit of billing calculation that identifies the monthly amount of container capacity (i.e. 1-4yd X 3 services per week X 4.33 weeks in a month is 51.96 MCY).
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) - Typical non-hazardous waste that is disposed of at any Sanitary Landfill, Subtitle D Landfill or Transfer Station.
NBOT or UBOT - Non-Billable Overtime or NBOT (sometimes pronounced “EN-bot”) is overtime that must be paid to a security officer for working extra hours beyond a regular shift length – but can only be billed to the client at regular hourly rates. The security company is effectively losing money for every hour of NBOT, so they will try to do everything they can to avoid incurring NBOT. For reference and comparison, see “Billable Overtime” and “Overtime”. Some companies refer to NBOT as “unbillable overtime”, or UBOT.
Non-Billable Overtime - See “NBOT”, above.
Non-Labor or Non-Labor Charges - These are charges billed by a security company for anything that is not directly related to hourly labor. Typical non-labor charges could include vehicle monthly charges, mileage, fuel costs, hotel stays, PPE costs, charges for a Guard Tour System, etc. For comparison, see “Labor”.
Not Our Goods (NOG) - See “Customer Owned Goods.”
Nuisance Alarm - An alarm received by a remote monitoring station or SOC, the cause of which cannot be identified and is thus filtered out. This alarm will not cause emergency services to be notified.
OC Spray or Pepper Spray - OC stands for “oleoresin capsicum”, which is a compound that causes irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat. OC spray or pepper spray can be deployed from a hand-held canister to temporarily blind or disable an assailant. There are many forms of OC spray, in varying degrees of potency, as well as forms that do not as readily disburse into the air– such as gel or foam – for use in confined or potentially sensitive spaces like mass transit or hospitals. The proper use of OC spray requires specific training. See “Armed” and “Unarmed”.
Officer - See “Security Officer.”
Old Corrugated Cardboard (OCC) - Box or packing material which has two outer layers enclosing a corrugated piece of cardboard. This waste stream generally has some value at market, though the OCC market has swung wildly in recent years.
Open Market Area - An area where waste service customers are free to select any vendor and negotiate services and pricing without municipal involvement. Conversely, see “Franchise Area”.
Open Site - These may be premises that do not have a full and secure barrier around the site’s perimeter. For example, business parks are rarely fully enclosed by a barrier when a CCTV system is set.
Operations Manager - This position typically reports to a District Manager or Client Service Manager and handles most or all of the scheduling for the accounts within that District Manager’s book of business.
Operator Node, or Station, or Desk - A desked area from which a security operator works. This area may include monitors to observe CCTV footage, computer terminals, emergency phones, radios, and audio equipment for issuing audio warnings. Alternatively, this area can be referred to as a “station,” “desk,” or “security desk.”
Outside the Rate - See “Pass-Through”.
Oversize, Special Size or Undersize Garment Charge - Extra charge for garments that are not standard stock sizes. I.E. a 58×30 pant or a 6XLL shirt.
Overtime - Under the terms of the FLSA, if a security officer works more than 40 hours in a single workweek, he/she is eligible to be paid those additional hours (above 40) at overtime rates. In some states, the overtime rule also applies for any hours worked beyond 8 hours in a standard workday. Overtime is calculated at 1.5 times the regular rate of pay. Therefore, if a security officer’s regular pay rate is $14.00 per hour, and that officer works 1 hour past the end of her regular 8-hour shift (because her Relief Officer was late to arrive), the security officer would receive 8 hours of regular pay at $14.00 per hour, plus 1 hour of overtime pay at $21.00 per hour for that shift. For comparison and reference, see “Billable Overtime” and “Non-Billable Overtime” or “NBOT”.
Pass-Through or Pass-Through Charge(s) - These are generally Non-Labor Charges that are billed to a client in addition to the regular labor rate (instead of being included in the basic hourly Bill Rate). Typically, they can include charges for such things as vehicles, mileage, hotel stays, health insurance, vacation payouts, etc. For reference, see “In the Rate”. Pass-through charges can be billed with or without a Mark-Up, depending upon the language in the Service Agreement.
Patrol - This refers to a route that a security officer would take during his/her shift to check paces of interest, concern, or vulnerability. Patrols can be conducted while walking on foot (a “Foot Patrol”) or using a vehicle (a “Vehicular Patrol”). Sometimes, security officers will employ a Guard Tour System while conducting their patrols.
Pepper Spray - See “OC Spray”.
Peripheral Charges - Uniform Rental - These are fees outside of standard rental. They include loss, damage, prep, emblem, etc. These create the largest variance and potential increase to a customer invoice. Beware: it is critical that local contacts understand these charges and how they can help control them.
Peripheral Charges - Waste & Recycling - These are fees outside of standard base service rates. These fees represent the largest variance and potential increase to a waste program’s total cost.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) - Pest Control - PPE specific to the pest control industry includes apparel and devices worn or used to minimize human contact with pesticides or pesticide residues that must be provided by an employer and are separate from--or in addition to--work clothing. Typical pest control PPE includes chemical resistant suits, gloves, aprons, headgear, and footwear.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) - Security & Guard - These are items provided to an employee to satisfy safety standards in a particular environment. Examples are safety glasses, non-slip shoes, steel toe boots, reflective vests, hard hats, filter masks, flame resistant clothing, etc.
Pest - Organisms that damage or interfere with desirable plants in our fields and orchards, landscapes, or wild lands, or damage homes or other structures. Pests also include organisms that impact human or animal health. Pests may transmit disease or may be just a nuisance. A pest can be an unwanted plant (weed), vertebrate (bird, rodent, or other mammal), invertebrate (insect, tick, mite, or snail), nematode, pathogen (bacteria, virus, or fungus) that causes or contributes to disease, or other unwanted organisms that may harm water quality, animal life, or other parts of the ecosystem.
Pesticides - Any substance or mixture intended to be used for defoliating plants, regulating plant growth, or for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest which may infest or be detrimental to vegetation, humans, animals, households, buildings, or be present in any agricultural or nonagricultural environment.
Pheromone Trap - Traps that contain a lure with a pheromone or scent that an insect would be attracted to. Insects are caught on a glue board or they fall into a trap located on the ground.
Plant or Processing Facility - This is the location where rental merchandise is cleaned and returned to the service representative for delivery.
Power Spray - A liquid treatment performed to the exterior of a facility using a truck mounted power rig which delivers a large volume of chemical.
PPE - See “Personal Protective Equipment”.
Price Increase - This is an increase to the hourly bill rates invoiced to a customer as part of a service agreement. Price Increases are typically scheduled on the anniversary of the agreement and are sometimes spelled out in that agreement.
PTZ - See “Functional Camera”.
QBR or Quarterly Business Review - This is presentation given by a security vendor on a quarterly basis to a specific client that is intended to be a summary of the previous quarter’s service delivery, financials, and any SLA or KPI metrics. QBRs are a way for clients to try to hold their security vendor(s) accountable for expected metrics and milestones.
Rear-End Load (REL) - The 2nd most common type of vehicle and container combination, with REL vehicles waste is dumped into the back of the truck when the driver backs up to the container, gets out and manually moves the container to the lift mechanism affixed to the truck.
Recyclable Material Offset - Hauler invoice item that refers to a rebate or charge corresponding with the current market value of the recyclable material.
Recyclables (RECY) - Materials such as glass, plastic, aluminum, cardboard or paper that can be reused or converted to new stock material for/by other industries, businesses or processes.
Regional Transmission Operator (RTO) - Entity responsible for overseeing high-voltage transmission and coordination of the electricity grid, and manager of the wholesale electricity market.
Regulated Market - Closed market; commodity supplied and delivered by a Local Distribution Company (see “Local Distribution Company”). Conversely, see “Deregulated Market.”
Relief Officer - This is an officer who is assigned to arrive at the end of another officer’s shift – to relieve them of their duties and take over for the next shift. For example, Officer Singh is scheduled to work from 0800 to 1600. Officer Jenkins (the Relief Officer) arrives at 1600 to take over from Officer Singh. Officer Jenkins then works from 1600 to 0000, at which time Officer Romanov (the next Relief Officer) arrives to take over from Officer Jenkins. Officer Romanov then works from 0000 to 0800, at which time she is relieved by Officer Singh (who is returning to the site as the next relief officer).
Remote Monitoring Station - Synonymous with Alarm Receiving Center (ARC) and Security Operations Center (SOC), this is a location that monitors signals received from a variety of security and other remotely based systems. The remote monitoring station is manned 24/7 by security professionals who monitor, analyze and act upon signals received from sites whose security systems they monitor.
Remote Video Response - An action completed at a remote video response center. Remote video response is when an intruder or environmental disturbance is detected via a security system. The video of this intruder is transmitted to the remote video response center. The operator verifies that there is an intruder and responds appropriately. See also “SOC”.
Rental Program - This most-common program includes full cleaning services, repairs, size changes and upgrading of uniforms throughout a multi-year agreement.
Repairs - This is typically associated with mending of garments. I.E. sewing on buttons, patching, repairing belt loops and/or fixing zippers, etc.
Replacement - This is a term associated with removal of product that does not meet industry or customer standards and is replaced with a new or like-new item. Beware: uniform suppliers will frequently attempt to impose damage charges even for garments being replaced due to normal wear and tear.
RFP or Request for Proposal - A solicitation sent out by a client to potential security vendors, asking them to provide written bids or proposals for security work. An RFP typically lists the Scope of Work to be performed, the type of coverage needed (such as unarmed, armed, foot patrol, vehicular patrol, remote monitoring, etc.), the Hours Per Week of service – and asks the vendor(s) to provide proposed pricing and plans to satisfy those requirements.
Rodent - The largest group of non-flying mammals which includes mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, beavers, muskrats, porcupines, woodchucks, chipmunks, squirrels, prairie dogs, marmots, chinchillas, voles, moles, gophers, lemmings, and many others.
Rodent Bait Stations (RBSs) - Bait boxes placed around the exterior of the facility, typically 150 to 200 feet apart. RBSs are intended to attract rodents to feed and then die outside before gaining access to the interior of the facility.
Roll-Off (ROL or R/O) - The 3rd most common type of vehicle and container combination, roll-off systems are used for large quantity waste applications like industrial or manufacturing clients. The trucks utilized for roll-off service have cable-driven mechanism that lifts and lowers the typical 8ft wide X 22ft long container onto the bed of the truck for individual hauling to and from the disposal site.
Rollover Clause - See “Auto-Renewal”
Route Manager (RM) - See “District Manager.”
Route Sales Representative (RSR) - See “Driver.”
Ruin - See “Abuse.”
Safety Data Sheet (SDS) - The (SDS) or Safety Data Sheets accompanies the product label and provides the following:
  • Identification: for the product and supplier
  • Hazards: physical (fire and reactivity) and health
  • Prevention: steps you can take to work safely, reduce or prevent exposure, or use in an emergency
  • Response: appropriate responses in various situations (e.g., first-aid, fire, accidental release)
Satellite - See “Branch.”
Satellite or Satellite Office - This is a typically the smallest local office of a manned security vendor. A satellite office usually has minimal or no permanent staffing and is often used for local storage of uniforms, equipment, and paperwork – and can serve as a place to conduct interviews, training, operate patrols, etc. Satellite offices are often in more remote areas and are, by definition, a part of a larger regional office structure – usually functioning under a Branch Office or Field Office.
Schedule or Security Schedule - In a manned security environment, this refers to the overall shift structure and work hours for all the security officers assigned to a particular client facility. The security schedule for a site typically includes all security personnel, including officers, supervisors, and leads – and covers a set workweek. A security schedule is comprised of sequential and/or concurrent 8-hour shifts but can also include 10- and 12-hour shifts, as appropriate. All of the work hours in a site’s schedule should equal the overall HPW of the site.
Scope of Work or Statement of Work (SOW) - This is a portion of a contract document, sometimes added as an Amendment, that describes the extent of the security services that are to be performed by a vendor at a particular location. An SOW will typically include such details as the location(s) where service will be performed, total HPW by site/location/position, security Schedules, responsibilities of security staff, etc. An SOW may also list all permitted billing/pricing and Bill Rates by position/location.
Scrap - Materials, usually metal, discarded from manufacturing operations that may be suitable for reprocessing.
Security Officer (SO) or Officer or Security Guard (SG) or Security Professional (SP) or Guard - These are all terms used to describe employees of a manned security vendor who act in a protective capacity, providing physical security services. Security Officers typically wear some sort of Uniform but can also be in plain clothes. In most states, Security Officers must have a License or Guard Card.
Security Operator or SOC Operator - A security operator is an employee of the remote monitoring station or SOC who monitors the operator nodes during a day or night shift. Security operators will man the remote monitoring station and monitor alarms and footage 24/7, provide dispatch communications services, etc. Typically, SOC operators have different skillsets than standard security officers.
Security System - A system that aims to protect a site from threats to the site. This system can be a connected network of cameras, audio output devices, access control systems, fire alarms, temperature and humidity gauges, intruder alarms and other devices designed to detect unusual activity and respond to that activity.
Service Charge - See “Environmental Charge.”
Service Manager (SM) - See “District Manager.”
Service Sales Representative (SSR) - See “Driver.”
Shift Differential - This is additional pay (above a typical pay rate) offered by a security vendor for shifts that are considered less desirable, such as evenings and weekends. Shift differential is used as an incentive to encourage employees to take less desirable shifts in a Schedule.
Shortage - This is a lack of merchandise causing a customer to run out before the next scheduled delivery, i.e., an employee turns in 5 sets of uniforms and only receives 4 sets back from the laundry the following week. This is perhaps the most common service-relate issue in the uniform industry and applies to non-uniform products, too.
Site Owner - The individual who occupies a site, who is not necessarily contracted into the remote monitoring agreement unless they are also the customer. For example, a contract may be set up between a remote monitoring station and a facilities management company. The facilities management company will be the customer but the tenant on the site will be the site owner.
Size Changes - See “Exchanges.”
SLA or Service Level Agreement(s) - SLAs are measurable expectations written into contract documentation that are intended to hold security vendors accountable for measurable benchmarks and milestones. For example, a security vendor may have an SLA in their contract that requires a security vendor to replace any terminated security officer within one week of his/her departure. SLAs are similar to KPIs.
Sludge - A semi-solid residue from air and/or water treatment processes, usually related to special or hazardous waste streams.
SOC or Security Operations Center - Alternatively pronounced “sock” or “S.O.C.”, this is a facility staffed by a security vendor that provides communications and monitoring support for a security operation. SOCs can provide a variety of services, but typically they would include some or all of the following: video camera (CCTV) monitoring, alarm monitoring, telephone or radio dispatch, patrol dispatch, scheduling confirmation, and emergency call support. Usually, SOCs are equipped with multiple television or computer monitors, multiple phone lines, and redundant communications options. Some SOCs are located at the site they support, while others remotely support multiple locations, potentially even nationwide or internationally. If a SOC covers multiple facilities internationally, it may be referred to as a GSOC (Global Security Operations Center). Typically, SOCs are staffed with security personnel who have special communications-oriented skillsets that may differ from standard security officer expertise. See “GSOC”.
Special Size Charge - See “Oversize.”
Special Waste (SPW) - Manifested waste materials such as asbestos, contaminated soil, filter cake, etc. that are disposed of at some but not all Sanitary Landfills, Subtitle D Landfills or Transfer Stations.
Spray Adjuvant - Any wetting agent, spreading agent, deposit builder, adhesive, emulsifying agent, deflocculating agent, water modifier, or similar agent, with or without toxic properties of its own, intended to be used with a pesticide as an aid to application or effectiveness, and sold separately from the pesticide with which it is to be used.
Square Feet - The measurement of length X width, typically used to calculate broadcast treatments like lawns or athletic fields.
Tactical Vest - See “Ballistic Vest”.
Target Pest - The specific Pest you have identified and plan to treat for.
Taser™ - This is the brand name of a hand-held, non-lethal weapon that can be used to electrically stun or incapacitate an assailant. Other similar devices with different names are on the market, but Taser™ is the brand most commonly used by law enforcement and security personnel. For comparison, see “Armed” and “Unarmed”.
Therm - Natural gas unit of measurement.
Threshold Level - The maximum pest population tolerated before additional pest control measures are implemented.
Time of Use (TOU) - Determining factor in pricing, generally broken down into on-peak, mid-peak, and off-peak periods.
Tipping Fee - A fee paid by anyone disposing of waste at a landfill or transfer station. Usually billed in ton units.
Toter - Another term for a small plastic waste container on wheels.
Tour - See “Guard Tour”.
Transfer Station - Facilities where MSW is unloaded from collection vehicles and briefly held while it is reloaded onto larger, long-distance transport vehicles for shipment to landfills or other treatment or disposal facilities.
UBOT - See “NBOT”.
Unarmed or Unarmed Officer - This refers to manned security services where the security officers do not carry or use a firearm. In some cases, the term unarmed can mean that the officers are not permitted to carry any form of protective or defensive equipment (such as Batons, OC spray, Taser™, etc.). For comparison, see “Armed”.
Undersize Charge - See “Oversize.”
Uniform or Security Officer Uniform - This is the uniform (shirt, pants, shoes, jacket, etc.) that a security officer wears while on-duty. Security officer uniforms vary from “hard look” or “police style” uniforms with collared shirts and badges, to “soft look” uniforms, such as polo shirts with khaki pants or sport coats with slacks. Some clients have particular uniform preferences, usually to help blend into – or stand out from – an established corporate culture or dress code. Some states have strict requirements for uniform specifications, embroidered patches, use of company logos, etc.
Vehicular Patrol - This is a driving route that a security officer would take during his/her shift to check places of interest, concern, or vulnerability. The vehicle used could be a car, truck, or SUV; a golf cart; an ATV; a Segway™ or similar electric vehicle; or even a bicycle. Typically, the type of vehicle is specified in the contract or scope of work. Also see “Patrol”. Sometimes, security officers will employ a Guard Tour System while conducting their vehicular patrols.
Video Analytics - Software that automatically detects intruders or unusual activity by interpreting movement and other variables. The software will identify the nature of the threat and alert the security operator via video footage.
Video Motion Detection (VMD) - Not to be confused with video analytics. Video motion detection uses the camera’s image to identify alarms, as does video analytics. However, most VMD systems are fairly crude and can cause a high number of false alarms.
Visually Confirmed/Verified - When an individual, normally located remotely and at a remote video response center, confirms the cause of an alarm by viewing an image/footage from CCTV cameras. This is an important part of the remote video response process as it ensures the emergency services are only called when an intruder/hazard has been visually identified on site.
Wage Rate - This is the amount of money that a security officer earns for every hour he/she works. Wage rates can vary significantly from position and level of experience, as well as geographic areas. For example, an entry-level security officer in some areas of the country might only earn only $10 per hour, but a more experienced security officer or supervisor with special skills or certifications in a large metropolitan area could earn more than $30 per hour. For comparison, see “Bill Rate.”.
Waste-to-Energy Facility - A facility where waste or decomposed waste is used to create an energy source, frequently using waste incinerators or landfill methane gas extraction.
Wastewater Charge - See “Environmental Charge.”
Weed - Any plant in an unwanted place. (a) Broadleaf weed is a dicot plant (two or more leaves). (b) Grassy weed is a monocot plant (one leaf or more from a central source).
White Office Paper (WOP) - General business paper in shredded or un-shredded form. This waste stream generally has some value at market.
Wood Waste (WW) - Items like pallets, crates, sawdust and other related wood products. This waste stream generally has some value at market.

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